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The art of explaining stuff 2011 年 06 月 24 日

Filed under: 未分類 — 曬蝴蝶 (vanessapsy) @ 20:51:43

詮釋事物的藝術

28 April 2011 Last updated at 13:33 GMT
By Denise Winterman and Megan Lane BBC News Magazine

2011年4月28日格林尼治標準時間 13:33最後更新於
由Denise Winterman 和 Megan Lane 發表於英國廣播公司新聞雜誌

Explanations of the AV electoral system tend to resort to analogies. But is this the best way to convey new ideas? The Magazine seeks tips from a teacher, a scientist, a philosopher, a cricket buff and two political boffins.

可供替代的選舉制度說明傾向於訴諸類比。但是,這是傳達新的想法最好的方式?該雜誌從一位老師,一位科學家,一位哲學家,一位板球愛好者和兩個黨派研究員尋求指示。

It’s a bit like X Factor – only without the singing, and it doesn’t go on for weeks. It’s also a bit like choosing your favourite crisps, and then your second favourite flavour, and so on.

這有點像是《X Factor》(是英國獨立電視台第一台(ITV1)的歌手選拔節目,比賽模式與美國同類節目《美國偶像》相彷)- 只是沒有歌聲,也不持續幾星期。這也有點像選擇你最喜愛的薯片,再來第二是你喜愛的口味,等等。

Ahead of the 5 May referendum on whether to adopt the Alternative Vote (AV) electoral system, those explaining this unfamiliar method of picking MPs tend to use analogies. But is this the best way to convey a concept to someone who knows nothing about it?

5月5日之前,就是否通過替代投票(AV)的選舉制度舉行全民公投,那些用以解釋這個陌生的國會議員選舉投票制度的方法傾向於使用類比法。但是,這是一個對該制度一無所知的人來傳達概念最好的方式嗎?

Author and award-winning teacher Phil Beadle says in a classroom, the key to getting information across is breaking it down into small, manageable chunks, checking each chunk has been understood and “grinding repetition". This isn’t so easy to do in a three-minute news item, but other key methods are universal.

作者和備受讚譽的老師菲爾比德爾在教室裡討論,將訊息傳遞的關鍵是在將它分解為小部分,易於管理的區塊,檢查每塊被理解的部位和“不斷重複”。這部分在三分鐘的新聞裡不容易做到,但在其他主要方法運作則是普遍的。

The BBC’s Ben Wright uses an Oscars analogy

This includes getting people to see how the issue in question relates to them.

英國廣播公司的本賴特使用了奧斯卡獎的比喻

這包括如何讓人們看到了議題的問題與他們的關聯。

“It’s been said about teaching that if you can’t get students to see what’s in it for them, then you won’t take it on," he says. “Good teaching is about contextualising learning, connecting it to experience, finding an appropriate analogy."

“這是說,使用教學時,如果你的方法你不能讓學生看見蘊含的意義,你就別採用此種方式。”他說。 “好的教學是關於脈絡化的學習,將它連接到的經驗,並找到一個恰當的比喻。”

Obviously, the larger the group of people, the more general the analogy has to be, hence the use of crisp flavours or reality TV to explain AV. Beadle, a secondary school English teacher, has used hip hop artists to teach William Blake and football in other lessons.

很明顯的,群人較大的,更適用一般的比喻,因此用清脆口味蜀片或者真人實事來解釋的AV。比德爾,中學英語教師,在其他課程採用了嘻哈文化來教導威廉布萊克的藝術和足球。

How AV works – without the analogies
Av制度如何運作- 不用類比法

• Voters to rank candidates in order of preference
• If no candidate gains 50% of the vote, candidate with the least votes is eliminated
• And their voters’ support is switched to their second choice Repeat until one candidate has 50% or more

•選民對候選人的排名按喜好順序排列
•如果沒有候選人獲得 50%的選票,得票最少的候選人被淘汰
•被淘汰後,原來的選民轉換去支持他們的第二選擇
•重複選擇,直至有一名候選人獲得 50%以上

Beadle says there is a school of thought that people learn and take in new information in three ways: visually, aurally and kinaesthetically – through the body. The latter is when you learn by carrying out a physical activity, rather than just listening or watching a demonstration by someone.

比德爾說,有一所學校認為,人們採取三種方式學習新的信息,並:視覺,聽覺和透過身體的動覺。後者是當你藉由活動肢體開展學習,會比僅僅聆聽或觀看演示的人學習更好。

“The best way to get people to understand is to use all these three ways," he says.
This three-pronged approach appeals to John Stern, editor of The Wisden Cricketer magazine.

“最好的辦法讓人們所有這三種方式去了解事物。”他說。
威斯登板球雜誌的主編約翰斯特恩呼籲三管齊下。

He prefers to explain cricket while watching a match for demonstration purposes, and with a ball and bat to hand so the novice can see and feel how, for example, the seam affects the movement of the ball.

他喜歡一邊觀看演示目的競賽一邊解釋板球,將球和球拍拿在手邊這樣的新手可以看到和感受,例如,接縫如何影響球的運動。

Pupils use a favourite pop star vote to explain AV
小學生使用票選最受歡迎的流行音樂歌星來詮釋 AV制度

“I start with the basics – two teams of 11, each trying to score more runs than the other. But it quickly descends into caveats and qualifiers, which is too confusing.
“我從基礎開始 – 二隊 11個,每個人都想比對方以更快的速度運行。但很快的因警告和限定變慢,預選賽太混亂。
“But I do explain the underlying concept, that the bowler is trying deceive the batter. If you understand why it matters that the ball swings, that helps."

“但我真能解釋基本概念,即是投球手試圖欺騙打擊球。如果你能理解為什麼球的擺動重要,這就有幫助。”

He avoids analogies, as these tend to obscure more than they illuminate.

他避免用類比法,因為這往往掩蓋了他們的光亮。

“It’s tempting to say ‘do you know anything about baseball’, but really the only similarity is that there’s a bat and a ball."

“用種誘人的說法’:’你懂不懂棒球,但真正的唯一的相似之處是,有一個球拍和球。”

As a science journalist, Quentin Cooper has to explain some very complicated things to a diverse audience. He says the key is knowing what facts you can leave out.

作為一名科學記者,昆汀庫珀對不同的受眾解釋一些很複雜的事情。他說,關鍵是你知道什麼事實可以省去。

“You need to give them only what they need to know and point them to what they need to focus on," says Cooper, who presents BBC Radio 4’s Material World. “If you are explaining some aspect of quantum physics, you can’t start with what an atom is, it would take far too long.

BBC第 4台廣播物質世界的主持人庫珀說:“你只給他們需要知道和指引他們所需要關注的”。 “如果你解釋了某些量子物理方面,你就不能以”原子是什麼”開始 ,這需要花太多時間。

“Take DNA. Most people probably couldn’t give a full explanation of what it is, but they know enough to understand when it is mentioned."

不要太拘泥於細節

“拿DNA來說。大多數人可能無法完全解釋清楚它是什麼,但當提及時足以了解其意義”。

Stern agrees. He leaves out strange terminology, such as names of the fielding positions. “None of that is important. There are so many weird and bizarre things about cricket, you could make up what you like and the novice wouldn’t know the difference."

斯特恩表示贊同。他避免一些奇怪的術語,例如防守位置的名稱。 “那沒有很重要的。有這麼多關於板球古怪,荒誕的事情,你可以填補你喜歡的,新手不知道他的區別。”

It’s also crucial the audience has faith in the person doing the explaining, says Cooper.
“It means not everything has to have a direct relevance to their life. With science it’s often hard to say that something has a direct bearing on a person’s life, but you can get them to think about the wider universe they live in and wonder how it works."

觀眾必須對解說的人有信心也很重要,Cooper說

“這意味著不是一切都需要跟他們的生活有直接的關聯。科學對一個人的生活是否有直接的影響通常是很難說,但是你可以讓他們去思考他們生活在更廣泛的宇宙並想像該如何運行。“

Keep it simple
讓它保持簡單化

The BBC’s Michael Crick plays it straight in his own AV explanation

英國廣播公司的邁克爾克里克自己用直述法解釋AV

Philosopher Mark Vernon says the approach of connecting ideas to what people already know goes back to Socrates.

哲學家馬克弗農說,用人們已知的知識連接起未知的範疇,此方式可追溯至蘇格拉底。

“He once explained a very complicated mathematical theory to an uneducated slave. He did so simply by prompting the slave, step by step, with things he already knew. So it’s not so much explaining that you do, but helping someone to remember what they already know from other parts of life.

“他曾經對一個沒有受過教育的受制者解釋一個非常複雜的數學理論,。他只是用他已經知道了的東西一步一步的提示受制者。所以它不必對你做什麼用很多解釋,而是幫助別人記住他們已經從其他人的生活片段中知道的事情。

“Then they will regard what you’ve shown them as their own possession too, and be able to incorporate it directly into their lives."

“然後,他們會將你已經展示了給他們看過的視為己有,並能夠將其直接融入其中。”
University of Reading politics lecturer Dr Alan Renwick uses reality TV to explain voting systems – X Factor for AV and Britain’s Got Talent for first past the post.

雷丁大學政治系講師艾倫博士倫威克使用真實電視解釋投票系統 – X Factor的另類投票和英國的選秀用得票最多者當選的選舉體制得到人才。

“Most people don’t think about electoral systems, but they do make decisions every day and are constantly engaging with different ways of making these decisions.

“大多數人不會去想到選舉制度,但他們每天都在做出決定與不斷的用不同的方式作出這些決定。

Prawn cocktail v cheese and onion in an AV run-off
鮮蝦冷盤v奶酪洋蔥用 AV方式舉行投票

“People are used to the concepts, but not the context. AV is an unfamiliar voting system. But the logic of AV is similar to X Factor."

“人們對概念而不是來龍去脈習慣。AV是一個陌生的投票制度。但AV的邏輯與X factor類似。

Fellow psephologist John Curtice prefers not to use analogies, as comparisons are blunt and, in some cases, misleading.

” 選舉學研究員約翰科蒂斯不頃向使用類比法,因為比較法將減低效應,在某些情況下,甚或會誤導。

Instead, he breaks his explanations into practical chunks.

相反,他將他的解釋打散成為實際的區塊。

“There are always two things voters need to know about a voting system – how the ballot paper is filled out, and how the seats are allocated. I would just simply explain these two aspects of the system."

“總有兩件事情是選民需要了解的投票系統 – 如何填寫選票,以及如何分配席位。我只是簡單地解釋這兩個方面的制度。”

It’s what some call the KISS approach – keep it simple, stupid.
這就是一些人所說的KISS 理論 – 保持簡易,若愚似的。

參考資料:
英國選舉制度
類比法

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