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Why the arts are essential to science and innovation 2011 年 03 月 11 日

Filed under: 未分類 — 曬蝴蝶 (vanessapsy) @ 20:08:24

Mark Brown Tuesday 22 February 2011 guardian.co.uk

2011年2月22日發布者馬克布朗刊登在英國衛報

There is compelling evidence that the arts help make our scientists and engineers more inventive

有確切的證據顯示,藝術使我們的科學家和工程師更具創造性

I mentioned in a post at the weekend that a mere 20% of FTSE 100 companies give something back to society by investing in the arts, despite their eye-spinning profit margins.

我提到上週末金融時報公布的訊息,富時指數100中的公司汲汲著眼於利潤率,僅僅 20%的企業藉由投資藝術回饋社會。

So it was interesting to read this on the Psychology Today website. It’s well worth reading in full. Michele and Robert Root-Bernstein from Michigan state university make a compelling case as to the essential value of the arts on scientific innovation.

因此,讀今日心理學網站是有趣的。這的確很值得充分一讀。來自密西根州立大學的米雪爾和羅伯特根伯恩斯坦做了一個引人注目的研究說明藝術在科技創新方面具有不可或缺的價值。

They quote the president and CEO of Boeing, W James McNerney, who said this:
“The arts inspire innovation by leading us to open our minds and think in new ways about our lives – including the work we do, the way we work, and the customers we serve."

他們引述波音公司總裁兼首席執行官,W詹姆斯麥克納尼,這樣說:
“藝術激勵創新以領導我們對我們的生活 開放思想及創新思維方式- 包括我們的工作,我們的工作方式,以及我們的客戶服務。”

The chairman and CEO of pharmaceutical giant Eli Lilly and Company, Randall L Tobias, said this:
“The arts foster creativity and creativity is central to our business strategy… Indeed, we believe there is a strong link between the creativity nurtured by the arts and scientific creativity."

製藥巨頭禮來公司主席及行政總裁的,蘭德爾 L托比亞斯,這樣說:
“藝術培養創造力而創造性是我們的核心業務戰略 …事實上,藉由藝術和科學的創造力,我們相信創造力培育之間有很強的的聯繫。”

The authors contacted scientists and engineers who graduated from MSU between 1990 and 1995 and write:
“The data our scientists and engineers provided to us demonstrates that the more arts and crafts a person masters, the greater their probability of becoming an inventor or innovator."

作者聯繫在1990年到1995年畢業於密西根州立大學的科學家和工程師,寫道:
“科學家和工程師提供給我們的數據顯示,對藝術和手工藝品愈專精的人,他們成為一個發明家或創新者的概率就越大。”

They conclude:
“Hobble the arts and crafts and you hobble innovation. Hobble innovation and our economy will suffer. Conversely, invest in arts and crafts and every dollar will stimulate the economy not only today, but through innovation a host of tomorrows."
他們得出結論:

“阻礙藝術和手工藝品,就阻礙創新。阻礙創新,我們的經濟則將受到影響。相反地,投資於藝術和手工藝品,每分金錢不僅在現今刺激經濟,更在未來成就更多創新。”

 

The environmental cost of coffee to go 2011 年 03 月 04 日

Filed under: 未分類 — 曬蝴蝶 (vanessapsy) @ 18:07:43

Sheila Hayman Thursday 18 November 2010
外帶咖啡的環境成本

Costa Coffee alone uses more than 100m disposable coffee cups a year – it’s enough to keep you awake at night

咖世家連鎖咖啡店一年使用超過 1億杯拋棄式外帶咖啡杯,這數據足以讓你無法成眠

Does anything symbolise the throwawayculture better than coffee chains? Every one is piled high with by-products of a culture which in the past 10 years has gone from thinking that a cup of coffee is best enjoyed sitting down, in a break from a busy day, to one where if you’re not constantly rushing, you may get to work to find your desk gone. Gone are the thick white mugs, washed and reused until they broke. Instead, we’ve a vast new industry of disposables for coffee on the go.

有任何文化象徵顯示用過即拋的喝咖啡文化比咖啡連鎖店更好嗎?在過去 10年每個人心中充斥了文化附帶產生的結果認為享受一杯咖啡最好的方式是坐下來,在繁忙的一天休息片刻,或到一個你不需奔波的地方享受,但這樣的想法已經消失了。 因為如此這樣的話回到工作崗位時可能發現辦公桌不見了。清洗厚厚的白色杯子並重複使用,直到他們破了為止,已不再適用。相反,我們已在一個龐大的新產業之中—就是 — 咖啡外帶。

Costa Coffee alone uses more than 100m disposable coffee cups a year. Add to that Starbucks, Caffè Nero, Pret A Manger and Eat, and you get something approaching 500m paper cups and a billion napkins, plus plastic knives, spoons, sandwich boxes and cute little granola pots to get rid of, just in the UK, every year.

單是咖世家連鎖店一年即使用超過1億個外帶拋棄式咖啡杯。再加上星巴克咖啡連鎖店 Nero Caffe , Pret A Manger,Eat等連鎖店 ,每年在英國,就得到將近 5億個紙杯和一億份餐巾紙,加上塑料刀,湯匙,三明治盒和可愛的小燕麥盆被拋棄。

There are no regulations determining what materials they use or how they dispose of any of it. So they do what they like – which turns out to wildly. One reason may be that three different government departments are in charge of waste management. The communities secretary is responsible for local rubbish collection via the councils, the environment secretary for waste policy and recycling targets, and the energy and climate change secretary the aspect of, well, tackling climate change. Wrap, the waste-management quango, sits in the middle, saying it has “no current plans" to tackle this.

沒有任何規範可確定他們使用了什麼材料或如何處置拋棄物。因此,他們隨心所欲 – 結果演變成失控。其中一個原因可能是有三個不同的政府部門負責監督廢物管理。英國社區幹事負責經由議會收集當地的垃圾,環境局局長對再造廢物的政策,資源回收目標以及能源和氣候變化方面的守護,以應對氣候變遷。Wrap,廢物管理半官方機構,處在中間,聲稱“目前沒有現行計劃”以扭轉這個問題。

When I asked the five major chains about their recycling policies, Eat wouldn’t give any information. Starbucks said: “We’re aiming to make our cups recyclable by 2015." Its salad containers are biodegradable and its sandwich containers, being a sandwich themselves of paper and film, are only recyclable once they’re ripped apart. You don’t see many people doing that.

當我問他們的五大連鎖回收政策,EAT(英國簡約快餐連鎖店)不提供任何資料。星巴克說:“我們的目標是到2015年可回收我們的杯子。”沙拉和三明治容器是可生物分解的,用作為包裝三明治的紙和薄膜,一旦他們被撕開只可回收。可是你不會看到很多人這樣做。

Costa’s cardboard cups can’t be recycled, because although the cardboard is recyclable, the ink and the glue aren’t. So it’s planning to use vegetable ink and degradable glue on its cups.

Costa的紙板杯無法回收,因為雖然是可回收的紙板,但紙上的墨水和膠水卻不是。因此,它將計劃在杯子上使用蔬菜油墨和可分解的膠水。

But even if everything was recyclable, where are the bins? Pret is the only major chain that offers customer recycling, but then it doesn’t give you the choice of a proper cup. Costa is “finalising plans to run trials of recycling bins.

但是,即使一切都可回收,垃圾箱在哪裡呢? Pret是唯一為客戶提供回收的主要回收店,,但隨後不給你選擇適當的杯子。咖世家“正完成計畫以試驗運作”資源回收箱。

Caffé Nero does the recycling for its customers. It recycles or recovers everything it clears off the tables, at least in greater London, and about 60% in the rest of the country. Both Pret and Caffé Nero say they’re aiming for zero landfill in the next few years.

Caffe Nero連鎖店為客戶做資源回收。至少在大倫敦和其餘約 60%的鄉鎮,它回收或者恢復清理桌子的一切。連鎖店 Caffe Nero和Pret表示,在未來數年他們致力於零廢物填埋。

Of course the real point of a takeaway cup is to take it away, so we need the bins in the street, not in the store. And we probably need half a dozen separate bins, until the ink, the glue, the cling film and the cardboard are standardised. Don’t hold your breath.

當然,真正的問題的一個外賣杯就是把它拿走,所以我們需要在街頭設立垃圾箱,而不是在商店。而我們也許需要半打分類的垃圾桶,直到墨水,膠水,保鮮膜和紙板已標準化。別 緊張。

Although you can hide the cups, ignore them or attempt to leave them behind, you can’t really throw them away because there is, as the poster tells us, no “away". Instead, why not do without the paper cup and give yourself a few precious minutes to daydream in a cafe?

雖然您可以隱藏杯子,忽略它們或留待後續處理,但仍不能真正把它們捨棄,因為,正如海報告訴我們,沒有“離開”。取而代之,為什麼不在珍貴的咖啡館坐坐 給自己享受幾分鐘的白日夢,而沒有紙杯?

文章來源: guardian.co.uk

參考資訊 :

撐得住的大衛 365天不丟垃圾
左鎮國小回收 分類逾30種
隔塑膠杯蓋喝熱飲 當心致癌雙酚A
塑膠公會:杯蓋不含雙酚A
自備環保杯 五月起享優惠 (2011)